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What are the methods of international cargo transportation? How to choose the right method of international cargo transportation?
Post Date:2024-01-08    Clicks:95

International cargo transportation refers to transportation from one country to another country by one or more modes of transportation. It is accompanied by international trade, which is generally international freight. However, general international logistics also includes express delivery, and international freight does not include international express delivery.

Modes of international cargo transportation
1. Ocean transportation
In international cargo transportation, ocean transport is the most important mode of transportation in international trade. The vast majority of my country’s imported goods are transported by ocean transportation. The reason why ocean transportation is so widely used is that it has the following main advantages compared with other modes of international cargo transportation:

(1) Large passing ability.

Ocean transportation can make use of natural waterways extending in all directions. Unlike trains and cars, which are limited by tracks and roads, their passing capacity is very large.

(2) Large carrying capacity.

The transportation capacity of ocean transportation ships is far greater than that of railway transportation vehicles. For example, the load capacity of a 10,000-ton ship is generally equivalent to the load capacity of 250 to 300 wagons.

(3) Freight cost is low.

From the perspective of economies of scale, because the transportation volume is large and the voyage is long, the transportation cost per freight ton is less, so the freight rate is relatively low.

Disadvantages: Although ocean transportation has the above advantages, it also has shortcomings. For example: ocean transportation is easily affected by climate and natural conditions, the voyage schedule is unclear, and the risks are high. In addition, ocean transport is relatively slow.

2. Railway transportation
In international cargo transportation, rail transport is one of the main modes of transportation in the modern transportation industry, second only to ocean transportation. Most of the import and export goods transported by ocean rely on rail transportation for the concentration of goods. and dispersed.

Railway is the main artery of the national economy. Compared with other modes of transportation, it has the following characteristics:

(1) Railway transportation has strong accuracy and continuity.

Railway transportation is almost not affected by climate and can operate regularly, regularly and accurately day and night throughout the year.

(2) Railway transportation speed is relatively fast.

Railway freight speed can reach hundreds of kilometers every day and night, and ordinary trucks can reach about 100 km/h, which is much higher than maritime transportation.

(3) The transportation volume is relatively large.

A railway freight train can generally transport 3,000 to 5,000 tons of goods, which is much higher than air transportation and automobile transportation.

(4) Railway transportation costs are lower.

The cost of railway transportation is only a fraction to a dozen of that of automobile transportation; the fuel consumption of transportation is about one-twentieth of that of automobile transportation.

(5) Railway transportation is safe and reliable, and the risk is far less than that of sea transportation.

(6) The initial investment is large.

Railway transportation requires laying tracks, building bridges and tunnels. The road construction project is arduous and complex; it consumes a large amount of steel and wood; it occupies land, and its initial investment is much higher than that of other modes of transportation.

(7) It is relatively simple to handle relevant procedures.

The procedures for railway freight are simpler than those for ocean transportation, and shippers and consignees can go through the consignment and pick-up procedures at the nearest originating station (shipping station) and destination station.

3. Air transportation
Air transport is a modern mode of transportation. Compared with ocean transportation and railway transportation, it has the advantages of fast transportation speed, high freight quality, and is not restricted by ground conditions. Therefore, it is most suitable for transporting urgently needed supplies, fresh commodities, precision instruments and valuables.

Advantages: Short transportation time, suitable for goods with small volume and tight time requirements.

Disadvantages: The price is too expensive, which greatly increases the cost.

4. Road, inland water and parcel transportation
(1) Road transportation

Road transportation is a modern mode of transportation. It can not only directly transport foreign trade goods in or out, but is also an important means of collecting and distributing import and export goods at stations, ports and airports.

(2)Inland water transportation

Inland water transportation is an important part of water transportation. It is the link between the inland hinterland and coastal areas and plays an important role in transporting and distributing import and export goods.

(3) Parcel transportation

Parcel post transport is a relatively simple method of transportation. There are agreements and contracts between the postal departments of various countries. Through these agreements and contracts, mail packages from various countries can be transferred to each other, thus forming an international postal parcel transportation network. Because international postal parcel transportation has the nature of international multimodal transport and “door-to-door” transportation, plus the simple procedures and low cost, it has become one of the commonly used modes of transportation in international trade.

5. Container transportation and international multimodal transport
(1)Container transportation

Container transport is a modern and advanced transportation method that uses containers as transportation units for automated cargo transportation. It can be applied to ocean transportation, railway transportation, and international multimodal transportation.

(2)International multimodal transport

International multimodal transport is a comprehensive and coherent transportation method that is generated and developed on the basis of container transportation. It generally uses containers as an intermediary to organically integrate various traditional single transportation methods of sea, land, and air. Combined to form a coherent international transportation.

There are several ways to transport international goods, so how to choose the right way to transport international goods? Among various modes of transportation, how to choose the appropriate mode of transportation is an important issue in logistics rationalization. Generally speaking, it should be decided based on the service level required by the logistics system and the allowable logistics cost. One shipping method or intermodal shipping may be used.

Therefore, how to choose the correct method of international cargo transportation can be based on the following factors.

(1) Type of goods

The variety, nature, and shape of the goods should be explained in the packaging items, and a transportation method suitable for the characteristics and shape of the goods should be selected. The affordability of the freight for the goods should also be carefully considered.

(2)Transportation period

The transportation period must be linked to the delivery date, and the transportation time limit should be guaranteed. It is necessary to investigate the transportation time required by various transportation methods and select the transportation method based on the transportation time. The order of transportation time is generally air transportation, automobile transportation, railway transportation, and ship transportation.